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Thermodynamics is the study of how heat moves. The Laws of Thermodynamics: one of the most solid bases in science. The Second Law of Thermodynamics. Why do objects heat up? Why do certain changes takeplace in our Universe?

- The steam-engine. The Industrial Revolution.
- Thermodynamics studies heat and temperature.
- The most usually found source of energy in the universe is heat.
- The First Law of Thermodynamics: the total amount of energy in the Universe remains constant and it is easily transformed.
- The Second Law of Thermodynamics: heat flows naturally from a hot body to another cold one, but not the reverse. Heat cannot be transformed into work 100% efficiently. In any closed system chaos increases with the passage of time.
- Entropy.

- All matter, whether it be solid, liquid or gaseous is composed of atoms and molecules, which are not stationary.
- What is heat? How is heat transmitted?
- Measurement of heat: Thermometers.
- Celsius or Degrees Centigrades.
- The Kelvin Scale.

- At sea level, when heat is applied to ice, its temperature increases but never exceeds 0º Celsius. From then onwards, it is transformed into water.
- Water can never exceed 100º Celsius, since from that temperature onwards, it is converted into steam.
- A rise in temperature produces a change in a body’s state. Density.
- How water behaves.
- How heat propagates: solid bodies, liquids and gasses.
- Good and bad conductors.
- The wind: convection currents in the atmosphere.
- Heat is transmitted by radiation in the vacuum and in some gasses.

- New methods of making the best use of available energy ar continuously being investigated.
- What is a thermal machine? Refrigerators.
- Superconductivity.


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